Despite abundant resources, Mongolia has struggled to shore up its energy security and decrease its dependence on Russia for refined fuel and electricity. The government has made some headway in diversifying fuel imports and improving its terms of trade, while several mid-stream projects could develop domestic refined fuel production. Meanwhile, important refurbishments of Mongolia’s ageing power infrastructure in 2014 will ensure adequate electricity supplies for the next three years, but new greenfield plants are needed in the long term. New wind farms will provide some respite, but larger coal-fired and hydroelectric plants at various planning stages will be key to balancing fluctuating supply and demand. As Mongolia develops a mix of larger renewables projects and decentralised off-grid systems, it is also seeking to develop its coal value chain to produce both power and coal-based fuels.

This chapter contains interviews with Gérard Mestrallet, CEO, GDF SUEZ; and J. Oyungerel, Chairman, Petrovis.